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Luther would go on to translate the Bible into a Central German vernacular at the Wartburg, doing much to standardize German and ultimately exclude northern dialects as "Low German" or "Dutch".The Holy Empire became split between Catholics and several branches of Protestants, while regional powers emerged from the more unified territories of Catholic Bavaria and Protestant Saxony and Brandenburg (later known as Prussia).Germany has numerous cities of interest to visitors; here are just nine of the most famous travel destinations. Some, such as Berlin and Hamburg, stand like urban islands in a more rural landscapes, others, like Düsseldorf and Frankfurt, are part of metropolitan areas together with other cities.In the first century AD, after a series of military campaigns, the Romans were able to conquer what is now most of western and southern Germany from the Germanic and Celtic tribes living there.Known around the world for "German engineering" as well as world leading banking and insurance companies, it is equally admired by visitors for its old-world charm and Gemütlichkeit (cosiness).Discard any perceptions of Germany as simply homogeneous, and a country of surprising regional diversity awaits.As German society gradually changed from having a feudal structure to a mercantilist system, guilds or Zünfte of craftsman were established and became a major factor in German economics and society.Some Medieval guild halls are still standing and can be visited today.

It took 100 years until Germany's population had grown back to prewar level.Several cities that are still important in Germany today were founded by the Romans as military bases and later, settlements, including Mainz, Wiesbaden, Cologne and Bonn.Baden-Baden's springs were also much appreciated by the Romans, who built baths whose remains can be visited under the aptly-named Römerplatz (Roman Square).From the 1200s, trade with the Baltic area gave rise to the Hanseatic League and rich city states such as Lübeck and Hamburg.Other cities also came to prominence from inland trade routes, such as Leipzig, Nuremberg and Cologne.

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